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Write a three page paper (double spaced, #12 font using times new roman font face) predicting how fungi will significantly impact human affairs in the 21st century in at least four of the seven areas identified (see attachment). Support your assertions using evidence extracted from your texts, Magical Mushrooms, Mischievous Molds and/or The Fifth Kingdom. Cite at least one additional source for each area identified (minimum 4 additional sources; 5 total).

INTRODUCTION

According to Hudler (pg. 230-34), the scientific community, spurred by new enthusiasm for the potential uses of fungi in industrial processes-including synthesis of pharmaceuticals-and introduction of new technologies for studying all aspects of fungal biology, brings us into a time of rapid and profound transition. Areas of inquiry that we will hear more about as the twenty-first century continues include:

Plant diseases. Engineering of disease-resistant plants and crops with other desirable characteristics
Mycoses. Prevention or treatment of benign fungi which become serious pathogens resulting from our use of drugs that depress our immune systems
Drugs from Fungi. Discovery of drugs from molds/fungi to manage bacterial diseases, hypertension, mycoses, and a wide array of other human ills. Increased attention paid to identifying and assaying microbes from the tropical rain forests.
Yeasts and Yeast Technology. Engineering yeasts for improved palatability and use as protein sources, especially in burgeoning Third World countries.
Wood decay Fungi. Using white rot fungi to lesson the damage by conversion of wood to pulp for paper and other products.
Pest Management. The use of fungi such as Entomophaga maimaiga and other endophytic fungi as agents of biocontrol.
Symbiotic Association of Fungi with Plants. The commercial distribution of fungi for application to roots of new transplants and established trees.
FINAL ASSIGNMENT

Write a three page paper (double spaced, #12 font using times new roman font face) predicting how fungi will significantly impact human affairs in the 21st century in at least four of the seven areas identified above. Support your assertions using evidence extracted from your texts, Magical Mushrooms, Mischievous Molds and/or The Fifth Kingdom. Cite at least one additional source for each area identified (minimum 4 additional sources; 5 total). Your paper should include:

1. A title

2. An introductory paragraph

3. A summary of where we are now and changes we can expect over the next ___years for each of the areas chosen (see example below)

4. Evidence from Hudler and/or Kendrick and at least one other source documenting/supporting your claims and predictions for each area chosen.

5. A concluding paragraph. (more than two sentences please).

6. Recommendations for further readings (one article per area chosen)

EXAMPLE: Suppose one of the areas of inquiry you chose was “Bio-remediation.”

Bioremediation is the process by which living organisms act to degrade hazardous organic contaminants or transform hazardous inorganic contaminants to environmentally safe levels in soils, subsurface materials, water, sludges, and residues (The Bioremediation Glossary (Links to an external site.)). Traditional chemical processes employed in production of textile dyes and pulp for paper create a significant waste disposal problem. Hudler, pg. 198, claims that fungi are superior to bacteria for reducing hazardous waste for a number of reasons including: they are able to degrade a wide array of materials, their enzymes act on a broader spectrum of toxins than those produced by bacteria, and degradation takes place outside of the fungal body where there is little risk of mortality from the toxins. Paul F. Hamlin in Fungal Biotechnology (Links to an external site.) further asserts that lignin-degrading fungi or their enzymes also have the ability to degrade highly toxic organic compounds such as dioxins and PCB’s and could have an important role to play in the remediation of contaminated soils and the disposal of chemical wastes. We can expect that with advances in genetic engineering, enforcement of stricter environmental laws, and restrictions on the use of chemicals that create toxic by-products, the use of fungi in remediation of hazardous wastes within 20 years will become commercially feasible. (The hyperlinked documents provide the recommendations for further reading requested in #5, Final Assignment).

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